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推荐学*K12高考英语二轮复* 阅读理解(十一月)练*(4)

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阅读理解(4)
阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C 和 D)中,选出最佳选项。
(The Program-Federal Government Helps Minority Business) Federal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the 1960’s when the Small
Business Administration (SBA) began making federally guaranteed loans and government-sponsored management and technical assistance available to minority business enterprises. While this program enabled many minority entrepreneurs to form new businesses, the results were disappointing, since managerial inexperience, unfavorable locations, and capital shortages led to high failure rates. Even 15 years after the program was implemented, minority business receipts were not quite two percent of the national economy’s total receipts.
Recently federal policymakers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the minority business sector by moving away from directly aiding small minority enterprises and toward supporting large, growth-oriented minority firms through intermediary companies. In this approach, large corporations participate in the development of successful and stable minority businesses by making use of government-sponsored venture capital. The capital is used by a participating company to establish a Minority Enterprise Small Businesses that have potential to become future suppliers of customers of the sponsoring company.
MESBIC’s are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience, as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management experience and small amounts of capital available. Further, since potential markets for the minority businesses already exist through the sponsoring companies, the minority businesses face considerably less risk in terms of location and market fluctuation. Following early financial and operating problems, sponsoring corporations began to capitalize MESBIC’s far above the legal minimum of $500,000 in order to generate sufficient income and to sustain the quality of management needed. MESBIC’s are now emerging as increasingly important financing sources for minority enterprises.
Ironically, MESBIC staffs, which usually consist of Hispanic and Black professionals, tend to approach investments in minority firms more pragmatically than do many MESBIC directors, who are usually senior managers from sponsoring corporations. The latter often still think mainly in terms of the ‘social responsibility approach’ and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria would warrant. Such differences in viewpoint have produced uneasiness among many minority staff members, who feel that minority entrepreneurs and businesses should be judged by established business considerations. These staff members believe their point of view is closer to the original philosophy of MESBIC’s and they are concerned that, unless a more prudent course if followed, MESBIC directors may revert to policies likely to re-create the disappointing results of the original SBA approach.
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1.Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage? [A] The use of MESBIC’s for aiding minority entrepreneurs seems to have greater potential for success than does the original SBA approach. There is a crucial difference in point of view between the staff and directors of some MESBIC’s. [C] After initial problems with management and marketing, minority businesses have begun to expand at a steady rate. [D] Minority entrepreneurs wishing to form new businesses now have several equally successful federal programs on which to rely. 2.According to the passage, the MESBIC approach differ s from the SBA approach in that MESBIC’s [A] seek federal contracts to provide market for minority businesses. Encourage minority businesses to provide markets for other minority businesses. [C] Attempt to maintain a specified rate of growth in the minority business sector. [D] Rely on the participation of large corporations to finance minority businesses. 3.Which of the following statements about the SBA program can be inferred from the passage? [A] The maximum term for loans made to recipient businesses was 15 years. Business loans were considered to be more useful to recipient businesses than was management and technical assistance. [C] The anticipated failure rate for recipient businesses was significantly lower than the rate that actually resulted. [D] Recipient businesses were encouraged to relocate to areas more favorable for business development. 4.The author refers to the ‘financial and operating problems’ encountered by MESBIC’s primarily in order to [A] broaden the scope of the discussion to include the legal considerations of funding MESBIC’s through sponsoring companies. call attention to the fact that MESBIC’s must receive adequate funding in order to function effectively. [C] show that sponsoring companies were willing to invest only $500,000 of government-sponsored venture capital in the original MESBIC’s. [D] Compare SBA and MESBIC limits on minimum funding. 5.It can be inferred from the passage that the attitude of some MESBIC staff member toward the investments preferred by some MESBIC directors can be best described as [A] disappointing. Indifferent. [C] Shocked. [D] Defensive.

Vocabulary 1.implement 2.growth-oriented

执行,履行 增长潜力的,有发展性的

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推荐学* K12 资料

3.intermediary company 4.venture capital 5.entrepreneur 6.fluctuation 7.pragmatically

中介公司,中间公司 风险资本
企业家,创业者 波动,涨落,起伏
实用地

难句译注

1.

Even 15 years after the program was implemented minority business receipts

were not quite two percent of the national economy’s total receipts.

【参考译文】甚至在这个计划执行后 15 年,少数民族工业的收入还不到全国总收入的 2%。

2.

Recently federal policy makers have adopted an approach intended to

accelerate development of the supporting large, growth oriented minority firms

through intermediary companies.

【参考译文】最*,联邦决策者采取一项措施,旨在加速少数民族工商业的发展,他们不再

直接帮助小型的少数民族企业,而是转向通过中间公司来支持规模较大、有发展潜力的少数

民族公司。

3.

By making use of government-sponsored venture capital.

利用政府资助的风险资本。

4.

The MESBIC then provides capital and guidance to minority businesses that

have potential to become future suppliers or customers of the sponsoring company.

【参考译文】然后再由 MESBIC 向那些少数民族企业提供资金、进行指导。这些企业是有成为

赞助公司的未来供应商或客户的潜力的。

5.

MESBIC – minority enterprise small business investment company

少数民族小型企业投资公司。

6.

MESBIC’s are the result of the belief that providing established firms

with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience,

as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity

to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management

experience and small amounts of capital available.

【参考译文】MESBIC 的建立基于这种信念:为已建公司提供方便,使它更容易获得相关的管

理技术更具体的工作经验以及大笔资金要比简单地给予一般管理经验和小笔资金更能使它们

获得机会去建立稳固的商业基础。

7.

The latter often still think mainly in terms of the ‘social responsibility

approach’ and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than

normal investment criteria would warrant.

【参考译文】后者――高级经理们――在有大多数情况下,仍然常常从“社会责任的角度”

来考虑问题,因此,他们似乎更倾向于选择那些比正常投资标准更具风险性,而不太引人注

目的项目。

写作方法与文章大意 文章主要采用因果以及对比的写作方法。先点出 SBA 计划――联邦政府对少数民族
去也的赞助()的失败及其原因。 为此,联邦决策者改变方法,通过中介公司,建立 MESBIC。由它来帮助少数民族企
业――使其获得相应的管理技术、具体工作经验和大量资金,甚至潜在的市场――取得了成

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功。 可内部存在问题,MESBIC 的职工和领导者之间的意见分歧,职工的投资观点更切实
际,而领导者仍从“社会责任的角度”来考虑问题,若不改变,有可能重蹈 SBA 之覆辙。

答案详解

1.

A 运用 MESBIC 来帮助少数民族企业似乎比原来 SBA 的方法更具成功的可能性。

文章一开始就点名 SBA(小型企业管理局)向少数民族企业提供联邦保证贷款,政府资助管理

和技术方面的帮助,结果令人失望。组建成的少数民族新企业由于管理上缺乏经验、地点不

佳、资金短缺而导致失败的情况很多。其他见难句译注 1、2、3。总之在 MESBIC 支持下:为

它的潜在市场提供大量资金等,使它们在地点和市场流通方面风险小的多,从而带来足够的

收入和保持所需的管理质量。这一切都说明 MESBIC 比 SBA 的成功可能性大。

B.MESBIC 中的领导者和职工方面在观点上有着至关重要的分歧。C.经历了早期管理和市场问

题后,少数民族企业已开始稳步发展。D.希望组建新公司的少数民族企业家已有好几个成功

的联邦计划可依靠。

2.

D 依靠打工四向少数民族企业投资。见第二段第二句:大公司利用政府资助的风

险资本参与成功而又稳固的少数民族企业的发展。参与的大公司用这笔资金建立了“少数民

族小型企业投资公司”(MESBIC)

A.寻求为少数民族企业提供市场联邦合同。B.鼓励少数民族企业为其他少数民族企业提供市

场。C.试图在少数民族部门保持特定的增长率。

3.

C 预期加入 SBA 项目中的公司的失败率比实际失败率低得多。文内没有直接点出,

而是从(见第一题注释)SBA 帮助的企业失败率很高――令人失望,从而推断 C 项结论。

A.给企业贷款最高期限为 15 年。B.商业贷款对企业来说远笔管理和技术帮助重要。D.鼓励接

受贷款企业重新寻找利于企业发展的地区。

4.

B 为的是引人注意这一实际情况:MESBIC 必须取得足够的资金才能有效地运转。

这在第三段最后一句:在经历了早期财政和运行问题后,赞助公司给 MESBIC 注入的资金远远

超过了 50 万美元的法定最低限额,以获得足够的收入并保持所需的管理质量。MESBIC 现在正

成为日益重要的少数民族企业的资金来源。这说明没有足够的资金是难以有效运转的。

A.扩大讨论范围以包括通过赞助公司投资 MESBIC 的合理性。C.表明赞助公司愿意在原来的

MESBIC 只投资 50 万政府资助的风险资本。D.对比 SBA 和 MESBIC 最低投资限额。

5.

A 失望。文章最后一段 MESBIC 的职工――一般是拉美和黑人专业人员在少数民

族公司的投资上比 MEBSIC 的领导者更切实际。这些高级经理从社会责任角度看问题,会选择

更具风险性,不太吸引人的项目。观点分歧使许多少数民族职工感到不安,他们认为应以公

司的业务爆出来评价少数民族企业家及其企业。者充分说明 MEBSIC 的职工对领导所青睐的投

资项目不满意和失望。

B.漠不关心。C.震惊。D.持保留态度。

阅读下列短文, 从给的四个选项 (A、B、C 和 D) 中, 选出最佳选项。 (2013·南京市二模,A) Dear Sir, I was surprised to read your recent editorial on the question of students' parttime jobs. You appear to be making lots of general comments on the basis of just one unfortunate case (I assure you that not all young people who deliver newspapers are 推荐学* K12 资料

推荐学* K12 资料
as foolish and dishonest as the two youths mentioned in your article, and one singlecase is not strong enough in supporting a point as evidence. I think you wouldn't disagree with me at this point). The first point I would like to make is that there are many jobs teenagers can do which give them useful experience of the working world. They are brought into contact with a variety of people, often older, and are given experience of expressing themselves clearly and logically. Every young man will eventually be involved in social net work, and we can't expect them to act as a mature adult once they step out of school. I am thinking here of jobs such as travel guides and shop assistants. Parttime jobs are actually a kind of guiding that young people need before they play their role in real career. Another argument for school children and college students having holiday or weekend jobs is that many parents need the financial assistance. If we take, for example, a family in which the father is unemployed or perhaps a singleparent family on a low income, it seems logical and fair that a son or daughter should try to bring money into the household. And I think it's also an education to young people what family responsibility is and what one should do in terms of showing their care and love. One further thing I want to say is that a lot of jobs for the young can be fun for the people who do them and also useful to the community. Youngsters who help in schools, hospitals and with the elderly often gain a great deal of pleasure and satisfaction as well as contributing something valuable to local society. And the experience will make young people feel their value in our society so that they will be more eager to learn and more willing to offer their help. In conclusion, I would add that when I was a girl, my father said my teens were a time for books, hobbies and academic studies. Thinking back, I feel I would have learnt much more—about myself, other people and life in general—if he had allowed me to do a limited amount of real work. Certainly, when she is old enough, I shall encourage my own daughter to do so, rather than waste her time with soap operas, computer games and discos, like so many young people today. I don't mean having fun is a waste of time. I just want to point out that fun and parttime jobs could be balanced. Yours faithfully, Margaret Williams 文章大意:本文是写给报社编辑的一封信。在信中,作者表达了对该社最*发表的关于“青 少年不应该做兼职工作(打零工)”这篇文章的反对,并给出了自己的理由和见解。
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1.Which of the following is true according to the letter? A.Parttime jobs help teenagers develop social skills. B.All young people doing parttime jobs are intelligent and honest. C.Children in singleparent families should not do part time jobs. D.The writer did parttime jobs when she was at school. 答案:A 细节理解题。根据文章第二段内容可知,A 项“打零工能够帮助孩子培养社会技能” 表述正确。B 项在文中没有涉及;根据第三段第二句可知,C 项错误;根据最后一段第二句可 知,D 项错误。故答案选 A。 2.What does the writer think many of the young people are doing now? A.Taking some parttime jobs to help their family. B.Doing their academic learning heart and soul. C.Wasting time with soap operas and computer games or discos. D.Doing community services by helping the old or the sick in hospitals. 答案:C 细节理解题。根据最后一段倒数第三句中的“waste her time with soap operas, computer games and discos, like so many young people today”可知,作者认为现在很 多孩子都将时间浪费在看肥皂剧、玩游戏或去迪厅等娱乐上面了。故答案选 C。 3.What can we learn from the letter? A.The writer of the letter is doing some parttime jobs. B.An article against teenagers' doing parttime jobs was published. C.Teenagers of the time are not doing the right thing. D.The writer of the letter is a teenager from a singleparent family. 答案:B 推理判断题。根据文章第一段可知,社论中就两个年轻人在送报纸的兼职工作中的 不诚实行为做了很多评论,不赞成年轻人做兼职工作,故可推断出报社刊登的文章应是一篇 “反对青少年做兼职工作”的文章。故答案选 B。
阅读下列短文, 从给的四个选项 (A、B、C 和 D) 中, 选出最佳选项。 (2013·合肥市二模,C) Traditional businessmen feel worried that growing ecommerce will reduce their share of the market. According to a survey, 90% of some people's purchases are made on the computer. As they find that by being able to go online and choose the things that they need to choose, and have them delivered right to their doorsteps, they could no longer be
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bothered with driving, the crowds, the noise of that, and they usually get a better selection. Cornell University Marketing Professor, MeLaughlin says traditional stores can keep their customers by offering goods like clothing, which customers may want to see and try on before purchasing, as well as items that are difficult to ship. He says some traditional stores are also pleasing customers with services that set up or repair computers and electronics. Traditional stores also offer a social experience that some shoppers enjoy. There is still a lot of emotion in the buying decision that takes place. Oftentimes, you need that last sense of “this is exactly what I want” before you part with money. And you can't always get that online. It's a rather cold process. As more and more people have Internet access and smart phones, online commerce is likely to continue its growth here in the United States and in other countries. 文章大意:本文为一篇议论文。越来越流行的网购严重冲击着传统商业市场,那么传统商业 怎么能够留住顾客呢?对此本文专家给出了几点建议。 4.Traditional businessmen feel upset because ________. A.consumers can get a better selection by shopping online B.more and more people purchase things on the computer C.people like to have their goods delivered to their house D.growing online sales will cut their share of the market 答案:D 细节理解题。根据文章第一段“Traditional businessmen feel worried that growing ecommerce will reduce their share of the market.”可知,答案 D 符合文义。 5.According to McLaughlin, some traditional stores are keeping customers by ________. A.providing customers with extra services B.inviting customers to try on clothing C.delivering goods to each doorstep D.repairing computers and electronics only 答案:A 细节理解题。根据文章第三段的最后一句“He says some traditional stores are also pleasing customers with services that set up or repair computers and electronics.”可以推知,答案 A“给顾客提供额外的服务”符合文义。 6.From the 4th paragraph, we know that ________. A.online shoppers tend to be cold to each other B.the process of shopping online is full of emotion C.some shoppers like the social climate in traditional stores
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D.making buying decisions in traditional shops is difficult

答案:C 细节理解题。根据文章第四段第一句“Traditional stores also offer a social

experience that some shoppers enjoy.”可知,答案 C 符合文义。

7.What is the author's attitude towards the future online commerce?

A.Doubtful.

B.Optimistic.

C.Sympathetic.

D.Concerned.

答案:B 作者态度题。根据文章最后一段“As more and more people have Internet access

and smart phones, online commerce is likely to continue its growth here in the United

States and in other countries.”可知,作者对网上购物持乐观态度,故答案 B 符合文义。

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